[21] According to Charles Tilly, "Altogether, about 100 million people died as a direct result of action by organized military units backed by one government or another over the course of the century. See all Early 20th Century Antiques. After the Soviet Union collapsed under internal pressure in 1991, most of the communist governments it had supported around the world were dismantled—with the notable exceptions of China, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, and Laos—followed by awkward transitions into market economies. The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehension, for the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium. [33] Other computationally-intense results include the study of fractals[34] and a proof of the four color theorem in 1976.[35]. 20th century liberal reforms. It took over two-hundred thousand years of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion;[7] world population reached an estimated 2 billion in 1927; by late 1999, the global population reached 6 billion, with over half being concentrated in East, South and Southeast Asia. The jazz age flapper of the 1920s got rid of all those restrictions in order to have fun. The 20th century saw the largest transformation of the world order since the Fall of Rome: global total fertility rates, sea level rise and ecological collapses increased; the resulting competition for land and dwindling resources accelerated deforestation, water depletion, and the mass extinction of many of the world's species and decline in the population of others; consequences which are now being dealt with. The Marshall Plan—which spent $13 billion ($100 billion in 2019 US dollars)[6] to rebuild the economies of post-war nations—launched "Pax Americana". In 1915 lipstick was sold in tubes for the first time. Unlike most century years, the year 2000 was a leap year, and the second century leap year in the Gregorian calendar after 1600. 1900 The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin. In many countries, especially in Europe, the movement was channeled into politics through Green parties. The world was still blighted by small-scale wars and other violent conflicts, fueled by competition over resources and by ethnic conflicts. Sound films were developed, with the first full-length feature film, The Jazz Singer, released in 1927. For more information on Calder and his art, click here. [11] Machines were being utilized in all areas of production, feeding an increasingly intricate national supply chain, meaning for the first time in history, mankind was no longer constrained by how much it could produce, but rather by peoples' willingness to consume. [19][20], The number of people killed during the century by government actions was in the hundreds of millions. It was not acceptable for women to show their legs. Early 20th century vintage press photograph - farmer in Canada, with dog and child with a horse team in harness and harrow, cultivating crops WW1 era postcard of farm workers with several Land Girls who are wearing Land Army armbands to distinguish them from the farm labourers and to show that they are on active war service. Europe slowly united, economically and, in some ways, politically, to form the European Union, which consisted of 15 European countries by the end of the 20th century. Increasing awareness of global warming began in the 1980s, commencing decades of social and political debate. [18] This prompted many nations to negotiate and sign the Kyoto treaty, which set mandatory limits on carbon dioxide emissions. Based on research done by climate scientists, the majority of the scientific community consider that in the long term environmental problems may threaten the planet's habitability. Literature 1950–2000. Until the early 19th century, life expectancy was about thirty in most populations; global lifespan-averages exceeded 40+ years for the first time in history, with over half achieving 70+ years (three decades longer than a century earlier).[12]. The development of set theory and formal logic led to Gödel's incompleteness theorems. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization. In total, World War II left some 60 million people dead. [citation needed] Political scientist Rudolph Rummel estimated 262,000,000 deaths caused by democide, which excludes those killed in war battles, civilians unintentionally killed in war and killings of rioting mobs. They were so narrow women could only 'hobble' along while wearing them. Twentieth century incarnations of traditional industries have seen them in decline, while modern industries, such as the generation of electrical power, the large-scale manufacture of foodstuffs and consumer goods, have developed enormously on expansive sites, with varied and innovative structures. Shop early 20th century panelling at 1stDibs, the premier resource for antique and modern building and garden elements from the world's best dealers. The first orbiting space probe, Multiple new religions were founded, including the, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 06:41. Keith says: 6 January 2011 at 12:21 PM. Introduction. ", Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment, and the Defence Burden, 1940–1945, Theodore G. Bilbo and the Decline of Public Racism, 1938–1947, "Ch. Trade improvements reversed the limited set of food-producing techniques used since the Neolithic period, greatly enhancing the diversity of foods available, resulting in an upturn in the quality of human nutrition. Except for Impressionism, it witnessed all the influential movements of modern art (modernism), plus the more fragmented styles of contemporary art (postmodernism). Hi, Very interesting website! His mobiles eventually became famous worldwide. Meanwhile, globalization opened the door for several nations to exert a strong influence over many world affairs. Optimisation by SEO Sheffield. Phenomenology, in Husserl's conception, is primarily concerned with the systematic reflection on, and study of, the structures of consciousness and the phenomena that appear in acts of consciousness. April 11, 2015. The 20th (twentieth) century began on In the first part of the 20th century, measure theory, functional analysis, and topology were established, and significant developments were made in fields such as abstract algebra and probability. Allies during the war, they soon became hostile to one another as their competing ideologies of communism and democratic capitalism proliferated in Europe, which became divided by the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall. Peacekeeping forces consisting of troops provided by various countries, with various United Nations and other aid agencies, helped to relieve famine, disease, and poverty, and to suppress some local armed conflicts. The 20th (twentieth) century began on January 1, 1901, and ended on December 31, 2000. After the war, Germany was occupied and divided between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. The repercussions of the World Wars, Cold War and globalization crafted a world where people are more united than any previous time in human history, as exemplified by the establishment of international law, international aid, and the United Nations. The influence of China and India was also rising, as the world's largest populations were rapidly integrating with the world economy. Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determination, official decolonization in the mid-century, and related regional conflicts. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 after the collapse of its European alliance was heralded by the West as the end of communism, though by the century's end roughly one in six people on Earth lived under communist rule, mostly in China which was rapidly rising as an economic and geopolitical power. Meanwhile in 1914 Mary Phelps Jacob patented the modern bra. Crossword Clue Solver - The Crossword Solver, End upset about conflict and support returning in style of pre-war period, Type of architecture spread far and wide, though not originally, of or relating to or characteristic of the era of Edward VII in England; "Edwardian furniture", someone belonging to (or as if belonging to) the era of Edward VII. In 1900 women wore long dresses. Workmen's Compensation Act, 1906 Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/PU/1/1906/6E7c58. It has many crosswords divided into different worlds and groups. One factor that motivated American imperialism during the late 19th and early 20th century was the Acquisition of new markets and sources of raw material Two objectives of imperialism were Humanitarian work and economic considerations The age of imperialism was marked by The expansion of American political influence Objectives of American expansion included The conversion of native … Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon. Disease threatened to destabilize many regions of the world. World population increased from about 1.6 billion people in 1901 to 6.1 billion at the century's end. In the early 20th century, America was flexing its economic and political muscle on the international stage. Because the existing workshops were not big enough for the electrically powered cranes, these had to be built outside. Terrorism, dictatorship, and the spread of nuclear weapons were pressing global issues. From shop OakyDokeUK. ", "The Sixth Extinction – The Most Recent Extinctions", "World Population to Hit Milestone With Birth of 7 Billionth Person", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUwmA3Q0_OE&t=5s, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezVk1ahRF78, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dDD2tHWWnU, "Quiz: Population 7 Billion – Could We All Fit in One City? We ended the 20th century with spaceships, computers, cell phones, and the wireless Internet all being technologies we can take for granted. Rao", "An HDTV Coding Scheme using Adaptive-Dimension DCT", Slouching Towards Utopia: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=20th_century&oldid=1000040435, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, After gaining political rights in the United States and much of Europe in the first part of the century, and with the advent of new, Rising nationalism and increasing national awareness were among the many causes of World War I (1914–1918), the first of two wars to involve many major world powers including Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Russia/, Civil wars occurred in many nations. Due to continuing industrialization and expanding trade, many significant changes of the century were, directly or indirectly, economic and technological in nature. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century, the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union created enormous tensions around the world which manifested in various armed conflicts and the omnipresent danger of nuclear proliferation. Below are possible answers for the crossword clue Early 20th-century. In the early 20th century, many public figures agreed with the idea of Eugenics. In the early 1920s women still wore pantiesthat ended below the knee. Millions were infected with HIV, the virus which causes AIDS. The London County Council created new estates of affordable housing and took control of education. The virus was becoming an epidemic in southern Africa. In addition to annexing many of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from them, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression. [2] It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. The century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. Film as an artistic medium was created in the 20th century. While the first films were in black and white, technicolor was developed in the 1920s to allow for color films. The period was marked by a new arms race as the USSR became the second nation to develop nuclear weapons, which were produced by both sides in sufficient numbers to end most human life on the planet had a large-scale nuclear exchange ever occurred. During the 20th and early 21st centuries, huge strides have been made in public health and hygiene. Women’s occupations during the second half of the 19th and early 20th century included work in textiles and clothing factories and workshops as well as in coal and tin mines, working in commerce, and on farms. However during World War I clothes for women became more practical. Rock soon branched into many different genres, including, Synthesizers began to be employed widely in music and crossed over into the mainstream with, The art world experienced the development of new styles and explorations such as. The world's most popular, famous or revered music artists of the 20th century include: Béla Bartók, Benjamin Britten, Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Ernesto Lecuona, Gustav Mahler, Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, Richard Strauss, ABBA, The Beach Boys, The Beatles, Harry Belafonte, Chuck Berry, James Brown, Cher, Leonard Cohen, Bob Dylan, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Michael Jackson, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, Madonna, Bob Marley, Metallica, Nirvana, The Notorious B.I.G., Pink Floyd, Elvis Presley, The Rolling Stones, Tupac Shakur, Frank Sinatra, Barbra Streisand, Stevie Wonder, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Charlie Parker, Robert Johnson, Amr Diab, Fairuz, Abdel Halim Hafez, Umm Kulthum, and many more. Find out Early 20th century short documentary Answers. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the Space Shuttle. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people: the global life expectancy increased from 35 years to 65 years. From The Waste Land to Ulysses and from Mrs Dalloway to Nineteen Eighty-Four, discover the seminal literary works of the early 20th century. Andy Sturgeon. The automobile increased the mobility of people in the Western countries in the early-to-mid-century, and in many other places by the end of the 20th century. For the first time in human history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized and cooperative world. The Russian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of the Tsarist regime of Nicholas II and the onset of the Russian Civil War. In the 20th century Education became a sensitive social, economic and political issue in most European countries. © 2021 Crossword Clue Solver. All Rights Reserved.Crossword Clue Solver is operated and owned by Ash Young at Evoluted Web Design. Fashion in the 20th century went from strict corseted dresses to the “anything goes” attitude of today. [17] One argument is that of global warming occurring due to human-caused emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuels. Posted by krist on 22 March 2017, 3:09 pm. The Crossword Solver is designed to help users to find the missing answers to their crossword puzzles. Unlike most century years, the year 2000 was a leap year, and the second century leap year in the Gregorian calendar after 1600. Scientific research, engineering professionalization and technological development—much of it motivated by the Cold War arms race—drove changes in everyday life. The world also became more culturally homogenized than ever with developments in transportation and communications technology, popular music and other influences of Western culture, international corporations, and what was arguably a truly global economy by the end of the 20th century. England was no exception. The Schilovski Gyrocar was a six-seater that ran on two wheels: one in the front … In 1900, most men wore suits and everyone wore a hat when they went out in public. In the history of English education the most important piece of legislation of the twentieth century was the Education Act of 1944, also known as the "Butler Act". Unable to engage one another directly, the conflict played out in a series of proxy wars around the world—particularly in China, Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, and Afghanistan—as the USSR sought to export communism while the US attempted to contain it. Rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. The technological competition between the two sides led to substantial investment in research and development which produced innovations that reached far beyond the battlefield, such as space exploration and the Internet. In 1905, the Liberal party took power and committed themselves to developing policy and legislation to help those in poverty and who could otherwise not help themselves. The deaths from acts of war during the two world wars alone have been estimated at between 50 and 80 million. Alexander Calder (1898-1976), an American sculptor, invented the mobile in the early 20th century. During the early decades of the 20th century Cubism swept away many of the hallowed principles of traditional plastic art, and triggered a wave of experimentation in sculpture. It is a broad philosophical movement founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl. The victorious Bolsheviks then established the Soviet Union, the world's first communist state. The people of the Indian subcontinent, a sixth of the world population at the end of the 20th century, had attained an indigenous independence for the first time in centuries. In the latter half of the century, most of the European-colonized world in Africa and Asia gained independence in a process of decolonization. Communications and information technology, transportation technology, and medical advances had radically altered daily lives. Multiple new fields of mathematics were developed in the 20th century. The 20th century was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: Spanish flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear weapons, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction;[3][4] and the birth of the Digital Revolution, enabled by the wide adoption of MOS transistors and integrated circuits. Japan's military expansionism in East Asia and the Pacific Ocean brought it into conflict with the United States, culminating in a surprise attack which drew the US into World War II. The world was undergoing its second major period of globalization; the first, which started in the 18th century, having been terminated by World War I. Malaria and other diseases affected large populations. These include, New methods for cancer treatment, including. The popularity of sport increased considerably—both as an activity for all, and as entertainment, particularly on television. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. At the beginning of the period, the British Empire was the world's most powerful nation,[15] having acted as the world's policeman for the past century. 8 thoughts on “ Early 20th Century Nottingham (1900 – 1949) ” Pingback: Tweets that mention Early 20th Century Nottingham (1900 – 1949) « MumblingNerd's Mumbling Blog -- Topsy.com. From The Bell Jar and The Lonely Londoners to Birthday Letters and The Buddha of Suburbia, explore key literary works of the late 20th century. It saw great advances in power generation, communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication and genetic modification of life.