The US army invaded Afghanistan after the 9/11 attacks and tried to fight Taliban, a radical Islamic guerilla movement, threatening the stability in the whole country. In recent years, there has been an uptick in saffron production, which authorities and farmers are trying to replace poppy cultivation. [54][55], In the early 16th century, Babur arrived from Ferghana and captured Kabul from the Arghun dynasty. This means they use just under double as much biocapacity as Afghanistan contains. Afghanistan is a country with a medium population which is located in the continent/region of Asia. Anthropologist. Important dams include the Kajaki Dam, Dahla Dam, and the Sardeh Band Dam. [321] A key portion of the Ring Road is the Salang Tunnel, completed in 1964, which facilitates travel through the Hindu Kush mountain range and connects northern and southern Afghanistan. It is biggest in the World and has square 652 thousands kilometer area. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [205], Afghans, particularly Pashtuns, are noted for their tribal solidarity and high regard for personal honor. Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The modern Constitution of Afghanistan, however, states that the word "Afghan" shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan.[29][5]. Capital of Afghanistan is Kabul. About two-thirds of its land is rugged and mountainous, and much of the country is sparsely populated. The smaller Mārgow Desert of salt flats and desolate steppe lies west of Rīgestān. Afghanistan's rough physical geography and its landlocked status has been cited as reasons why the country has always been among the least developed in the modern era – a factor where progress is also slowed by contemporary conflict and political instability. It was agreed that while Ghani will lead Afghanistan as the president, Abdullah will oversee the peace process with the Taliban. A rail line between Khaf, Iran and Herat, western Afghanistan, intended for both freight and passengers, is under construction as of 2019. [236] Each province is the size of a U.S. county, having a governor and a capital. Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran. The Afghan national cricket team, which was formed in 2001, participated in the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier, 2010 ICC World Cricket League Division One and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. Afghanistan is slightly smaller than the state of Texas, with a total area of 647,500 sq km (250,001 sq mi), extending 1,240 km (770 mi) The karakul is a hat made from the fur of a specific regional breed of sheep. [250][251] The Afghan Ministry of Counter Narcotics is responsible for the monitoring and eradication of the illegal drug business. Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in Central Asia. Shindand Airbase is located in southwest Afghanistan less than 75 miles from the Iranian border. [256] In 2012, Afghanistan recorded 240 cases of honor killing, but the total number is believed to be much higher. The mission of the Uniformed Police is to ensure security within Afghanistan, prevent crime, and protect property. [299] In a 2011 news story, the CSM reported, "The United States and other Western nations that have borne the brunt of the cost of the Afghan war have been conspicuously absent from the bidding process on Afghanistan's mineral deposits, leaving it mostly to regional powers. Strategically located at the crossroads of major trade routes, Afghanistan has attracted a succession of invaders since the sixth century BCE. Although Ḥazārajāt is located in the heart of the country, its high mountains and… Read More Afghanistan’s shape has been compared to a leaf, of which the Vākhān strip, nestled high in the Pamirs, forms the stem. [291] The United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimated in 2006 that northern Afghanistan has an average 460 million m3 (2.9 billion bbl) of crude oil, 440 billion m3 (15.7 trillion cu ft) of natural gas, and 67 billion L (562 million US bbl) of natural gas liquids. [306] Power is managed by the Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS, Afghanistan Electricity Company). [367] The Mazari hat originates from northern Afghanistan.[368]. The situation in the country deteriorated under Amin and thousands of people went missing. Where Is Afghanistan Located? GUTMAN, Roy (2008): How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed., Washington D.C. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [33], Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. It is positioned on 647500 km² area with population of approximately 29.1 million. The tribal revolts of 1944–1947 saw Zahir Shah's reign being challenged by Zadran, Safi, Mangal, and Wazir tribesmen led by Mazrak Zadran, Salemai, and Mirzali Khan, among others, many of whom were Amanullah loyalists. Faced with the overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah Khan abdicated in January 1929, and soon after Kabul fell to Saqqawist forces led by Habibullah Kalakani. [88] Displeased with Amin's government, the Soviet Army invaded the country in December 1979, heading for Kabul and killing Amin just 3 days later. [277], Several small companies and factories began operating in different parts of the country, which not only provide revenues to the government but also create new jobs. [307] Currently under development are the CASA-1000 project which will transmit electricity from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline. Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Da Afghanistan Bank serves as the central bank of the nation[270] and the "Afghani" (AFN) is the national currency, with an exchange rate of about 75 Afghanis to 1 US dollar. The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders. It is part of the Hindu Kush range of mountains. [335], Education in Afghanistan includes K–12 and higher education, which is overseen by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education. [240] It enjoys cordial relations with a number of NATO and allied nations, particularly the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Turkey. Afghanistan has a wide variety of birds despite its relatively arid climate – an estimated 460 species of which 235 breed within. [76] Khan's wife Queen Soraya Tarzi was a figure during this period. [272] Some of the major national construction projects include the $35 billion New Kabul City next to the capital, the Aino Mena project in Kandahar, and the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Town near Jalalabad. [111] Several failed reconciliations and alliances occurred between different leaders. The country has three rail links: one, a 75-kilometer (47 mi) line from Mazar-i-Sharif to the Uzbekistan border;[327] a 10-kilometer (6.2 mi) long line from Toraghundi to the Turkmenistan border (where it continues as part of Turkmen Railways); and a short link from Aqina across the Turkmen border to Kerki, which is planned to be extended further across Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Western, Central, and Southern Asia and is at the heart of the continent. [225] Presidential elections use the two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, a second round will be held featuring the top two candidates. Their efforts to bring Afghanistan into the Central Powers failed, but it caused discontent among the population for keeping neutrality against the British. The United States is building six faculties of education and five provincial teacher training colleges around the country, two large secondary schools in Kabul, and one school in Jalalabad. [414] In 2012, the country's 3x3 basketball team won the gold medal at the 2012 Asian Beach Games. [112] The Taliban emerged in September 1994 as a movement and militia of students (talib) from Islamic madrassas (schools) in Pakistan,[111][113] who soon had military support from Pakistan. Its a landlocked and a mountainous country. During this time female artists also started appearing, at first Mermon Parwin. The Afghanistan national football team has been competing in international football since 1941. [13] Settled life emerged in the region 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus civilization (Shortugai site), the Oxus civilization (Dashlyji site), and the Helmand civilization (Mundigak site) of the 3rd millennium BCE. At over 652,230 km2 (251,830 sq mi),[171] Afghanistan is the world's 41st largest country,[172] slightly bigger than France and smaller than Myanmar, and about the size of Texas in the United States. [388] The stereotypes of Afghans in India (Kabuliwala or Pathani) has also been represented in some Bollywood films by actors. Afghanistan is a country located in the South Central Asia. Afghanistan Government . [394], Afghan cuisine is largely based upon the nation's chief crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. The Minaret of Jam in the Hari River valley is a UNESCO World Heritage site. By the early 21st century an entire generation of Afghans had come to adulthood knowing nothing but war. Dostum's forces were defeated by the Taliban during the Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997–98); Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff, Pervez Musharraf, began sending thousands of Pakistanis to help the Taliban defeat the Northern Alliance. The current population growth rate is 2.37%,[7] one of the highest in the world outside of Africa. In 2002, traveler Rory Stewart reported that dogs were still used for wolf hunting in remote areas. [285][286] Production hit record high in 2019 (19,469 kg of saffron), and one kilogram is sold domestically between $634 and $1147. Though this is a misconception, Afghanistan is near the Middle Eastern Region of the world. The mountainous region of Ḥazārajāt occupies the central part of the country and is inhabited principally by the Ḥazāra. Including domestic airports, there are 43. [238] The functions of provincial councils are to take part in provincial development planning and to participate in the monitoring and appraisal of other provincial governance institutions. This population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050 if current population trends continue. Afghanistan is located  over the Central Asian and South Asian land fragments, has border neighbors Pakistan (East and West), Iran (West) and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China (North). China wins $700 million Afghan oil and gas deal. Its the world 41st largest country. [252][253] However many issues regarding human rights exist contrary to the law, often committed by local tribes, lawmakers and hardline clerics. The Badakhshān area in the northeastern part of the central highlands is the location of the epicentres for many of the 50 or so earthquakes that occur in the country each year. Airlines from a number of countries also provide flights in and out of the country. [266], Afghanistan's nominal GDP was $21.7 billion in 2018, or $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity (PPP). In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. [284], Saffron, the most expensive spice, grows in Afghanistan, particularly Herat Province. Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. In Afghanistan: Ethnic groups. [210] Afghan Christians, who number 500–8,000, practice their faith secretly due to intense societal opposition, and there are no public churches. On 9 September 2001, Massoud was assassinated by two Arab suicide attackers in Panjshir Valley. The Afghan Defense University houses various educational establishments for the Afghan Armed Forces, including the National Military Academy of Afghanistan. Find out where is Afghanistan located. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages have been found in Afghanistan. [38], Alexander the Great and his Macedonian forces arrived in Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. [163], Afghanistan is located in South Asia[164][165] and Central Asia -[166][167][168] indeed the region particularly centered at Afghanistan is considered the "crossroads of Asia",[169] and the country has had the nickname Heart of Asia. The central highlands—actually a part of the Himalayan chain—include the main Hindu Kush range. [174] The country is generally arid in the summers, with most rainfall falling between December and April. [28] The last part of the name, "-stan" is a Persian suffix for "place of." The 1930s saw the development of roads, infrastructure, the founding of a national bank, and increased education. Khushal Khan Khattak of the 17th century is considered the national poet. [117] The Taliban were condemned internationally for the harsh enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic sharia law, which resulted in the brutal treatment of many Afghans, especially women. In 2016, Afghanistan had 0.43 global hectares[301] of biocapacity per person within its territory, much less than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. [380][381] A notable art style that developed in Afghanistan and eastern Pakistan is Gandhara Art, produced by a fusion of Greco-Roman art and Buddhist art between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. It is a landlocked country that is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China. Afghanistan's sports teams are increasingly celebrating titles at international events. The northern plains region is intensively cultivated and densely populated. The northern plains region, north of the central highlands, extends eastward from the Iranian border to the foothills of the Pamirs, near the border with Tajikistan. [268], While the nation's current account deficit is largely financed with donor money, only a small portion is provided directly to the government budget. In 2019, Reporters Without Borders listed the media environment of Afghanistan as 121st out of 179 on its Press Freedom Index, with 1st being most free. [189], The forest region of Afghanistan has vegetation such as pine trees, spruce trees, fir trees and larches, whereas the steppe grassland regions consist of broadleaf trees, short grass, perennial plants and shrublands. [246] Afghanistan's intelligence agency, the National Directorate of Security (NDS), assists the ANP with security matters.[247]. However, up to the 19th century the term Khorasan was commonly used among natives to describe their country, Sir George Elphinstone wrote with amazement that the country known to outsiders as "Afghanistan" was referred to by its own inhabitants as "Khorasan" and that the first Afghan official whom he met at the border welcomed him to Khorasan.[58][59][60][61]. Improvements to the business environment have resulted in more than $1.5 billion in telecom investment and created more than 100,000 jobs since 2003. Trees are rare, and only in the rainy season of early spring is the soil covered with flowering grasses and herbs. In 1838, the British marched into Afghanistan and arrested Dost Mohammad, sent him into exile in India and replaced him with the previous ruler, Shah Shuja. [229] Among the elected officials were a large mix of former mujahideen, Islamic fundamentalists, warlords, tribal nationalists, former communists, reformists, urban professionals, royalists and several former Taliban associates. Afghanistan had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.85/10, ranking it 15th globally out of 172 countries.[190]. Soon thereafter, anti-Taliban forces agreed to a period of transitional leadership and an administration that would lead to a new constitution and the establishment of a democratically elected government. So, too, fared much of the country, its economy in shambles and its people scattered and despondent. [74][75] Following a 1927–28 tour of Europe and Turkey, he introduced several reforms intended to modernize his nation. Genres of this style of music include ghazal (poetic music) and instruments such as the Indian tabla, sitar and harmonium, and local instruments like zerbaghali, as well as dayereh and tanbur which are also known in Central Asia, the Caucusus and the Middle East. Does Yemen take its name from the Arabic word meaning "northerly?" [196] The population of Afghanistan increased steadily until the 1980s, when civil war caused millions to flee to other countries such as Pakistan. Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan , east of Iran Definition: This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water. The PDPA declared the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, with its first leader named as People's Democratic Party general secretary Nur Muhammad Taraki. Despite that, archaeologists are still finding Buddhist relics in different parts of the country, some of them dating back to the 2nd century. Freedom of expression and the press is permitted and promoted in the current 2004 constitution, so long as it does not threaten national or religious integrity or does not defame individuals. [214], The only city with over a million residents is its capital, Kabul, located in the east of the country. Those who have lived in Pakistan and Iran over the last 30 years have been further influenced by the cultures of those neighboring nations. Villages typically have a headman (malik), a master for water disribution (mirab) and a religious teacher (mullah). The Afghan Armed Forces are under the Ministry of Defense, which includes the Afghan Air Force (AAF) and the Afghan National Army (ANA). The Marco Polo sheep exclusively live in the Wakhan Corridor region of north-east Afghanistan. [227] The 2014 presidential election ended with Ashraf Ghani winning by 56.44% of the votes. Updates? [328] These lines are used for freight only and there is no passenger service. After his death, they rebelled and divided up the provinces of the empire between themselves. Graduate sues over 'four-year degree that is worthless' New report reveals 'Glee' star's medical history. [198] Afghanistan's healthcare has recovered since the turn of the century, causing falls in infant mortality and increases in life expectancy. [383] Radio Television Afghanistan, originating from 1925, is the state public broadcaster. The lands of Afghanistan have a long history of art, with the world's earliest known usage of oil painting found in cave murals in the country. There are also provincial councils that are elected through direct and general elections for four years. In 2018, a majority of imports come from either Iran, China, Pakistan and Kazakhstan, while 84% of exports are to Pakistan and India. [13][37], The religion Zoroastrianism is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster is thought to have lived and died in Balkh. In October 1772, Durrani died of natural causes and was buried at a site now adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar. "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018",, "Afghanistan Has Capacity To Produce 310,000MW Power", "Afghanistan Resurrects its Largest Hydropower Plant Toward a Brighter Future", "Power to the People: How to extend Afghans' access to electricity", "The Power of Nature: How Renewable Energy is Changing Lives in Afghanistan", "20,000 foreign tourists visit Afghanistan annually", "Coronavirus shatters tourism hopes in Afghanistan's Bamyan province", "More than 200,000 tourists visit Bamyan this year", "When Afghanistan was just a laid-back highlight on the hippie trail", "Bamyan, First Ever Cultural Capital of South Asia: A big party, but what else? Road links in the north played a large part in a growing cotton and textile industry. ", "Chapter 1: Religious Composition of Afghanistan", "Afghanistan: Sikhs rebuilding gurdwaras", "Afghan Jew Becomes Country's One and Only", "International Religious Freedom Report 2009", "Christians in Afghanistan: A Community of Faith and Fear", "Unravelling the Afghan art of carpet weaving", "The Supreme Court Chief Justice Biography", "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 Results", "Corruption widespread in Afghanistan, UNODC survey says", "Afghanistan president Ashraf Ghani and rival Abdullah Abdullah reach power-sharing deal", "Afghan president and rival strike power-sharing deal after feuding for months", "Loya jirga approves U.S.-Afghan security deal; asks Karzai to sign", "Karzai Gets New Term as Afghan Runoff is Scrapped", "RAWA Photo Gallery: They are Responsible for Afghanistan's Tragedy",, "Women in Parliaments: World Classification", "Afghanistan sees new political parties form", "For Afghan Officials, Prospect of Death Comes With Territory", "Explaining Elections, Independent Election Commission of Afghanistan", "An Assessment of Afghanistan's Municipal Governance Framework", "Hillary Clinton says Afghanistan 'major non-Nato ally, "Security Council endorses establishment of UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan for initial 12-month period", "Resolute Support Mission: Key Facts and Figures", "Afghan National Security Forces Order of Battle", "Afghanistan's dysfunctional security agencies", "Afghanistan Descends 3 Points on Press Freedom Index", "Afghan journalists 'face increasing attacks and threats' – report", "Violence Against Journalists Surges in Afghanistan in 2017", "Afghanistan: No Country for Women | International Women's Day | Al Jazeera", "240 cases of honor killing recorded in Afghanistan", "AIHRC: 400 rape, honor killings registered in Afghanistan in 2 years", "The LGBT community living under threat of death", "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds", "The revised Afghanistan criminal code: an end for Bacha Bazi? The village of Istalif, north of Kabul, is in particular a major center, known for its unique turquoise and green pottery,[376] and their methods of crafting have remained the same for centuries. The French Medical Institute for Children and Indira Gandhi Children's Hospital in Kabul are the leading children's hospitals in the country. An inscription on the tombstone of Darius I of Persia mentions the Kabul Valley in a list of the 29 countries that he had conquered. There are a number of smaller regional languages, including Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi, and Nuristani. The colder high elevation regions are composed of hardy grasses and small flowering plants. Omissions? On a per capita basis, Afghanistan received more Soviet development aid than any other country. On the eastern frontier with Pakistan, several mountain ranges effectively isolate the interior of the country from the moisture-laden winds that blow from the Indian Ocean. [142] Many foreign donors started providing aid and assistance to rebuild the war-torn country. [280], Agricultural production is the backbone of Afghanistan's economy[281] and has traditionally dominated the economy, employing about 40% of the workforce as of 2018. It occurs every year at the vernal equinox. [35][36] There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. The base is a co-base which means that it is shared operations between the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. [201], An estimated 99.7% of the Afghan population is Muslim[7] and most are thought to adhere to the Sunni Hanafi school. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local Ghilzai tribal leader, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. Because of the scarcity of land, however, many have migrated to other parts of the country. 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